It IS sometimes possible to replace these. The trick is finding out which one you need. Just as the adapters themselves are various sizes, the internal is the same.
The part is about $4-20, the issue is the laptop may need a complete teardown to do the replacement. The ones I've done, have been simple enough. Shouldnt be more than an hours labour to be honest, two at the outside.
The also comes in if you get the part in and it doesn't help any, you'll have spent for $20 part, and paid upwards of two hours of labour (rates vary depending on shop and region but compare mine at $50 an hour).
There are probably about a dozen screws on the bottom after removing hard drive, memory, and the panels covering them. You'll need to remove the battery, and remove the keyboard before you can carefully separate the upper cover (the area around the keyboard) from the lower. SOME MODELS require you to take the screen off to do a proper job without damaging the unit.
Once inside, you will USUALLY discover a short cable that runs to the mother board from that corner, and you'll have to work that free, take a couple screws out (I've also had to actually remove the motherboard to get to the clip).
The short answer is yes, it likely CAN be fixed, and the internal adapter replaced. Comes down to the cost you're willing to incur or how much your willing to do yourself.
if you know the battery has ANY power to it, you can always test the adapter with a Multi-meter. There are various how-to's online to do that. Simply google it (I think I saw one here on ifixit.com)
''Side note, I had one laptop that even with a new adapter refused to charge or 'start.' For some reason I detached the cable from the box to the laptop and flipped it over. It suddenly worked. (this is a two prong, not three 'prong'.'
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