Okay, I'll try to address all the items being discussed.
First of all, it doesn't look like there is any reason why the broken WiFi Antenna panel should affect the speakers, so I wouldn't worry about that. If you have issues with wireless charging or WiFi connections, then you might need to consider replacing it, but for the purposes of getting the speakers working again that's not a concern.
Next, while it's always possible Samsung did something weird with the speakers, most likely there should be no reason why the lower speaker would not work just because the top speaker isn't. They use completely different connectors and speakers, but they almost certainly have an audio IC in common on the motherboard. That's the only reason I can think of as to why both audio channels would fail at the same time. If that's the case, it would require board-level repairs that are generally out of range of the skill set of even the most experienced of us home DIY-ers.
But, there are a couple of things you can check. Both speakers rely on a pair of spring contacts to make the connection to the motherboard. Although it seems unlikely, it is possible you've got a bad connection on those contacts keeping your speakers from working. Here's where the contacts are on the front and rear speakers.
Make sure those contacts are clean; you might go over them with a pencil eraser to make sure.
Here are the pins on the motherboard that those contacts have to touch.
Again, you'll have to check those spring contacts. Clean them with isopropyl alcohol and make sure they aren't flattened to the board, that they have some spring in them. You may have to carefully bend them up a little from the board to make sure they're going to make contact when they're placed next to the speaker they connect to.
You could try doing a factory restore of the phone to eliminate the possibility that this is a software problem; that might be worth trying first before you open the phone back up and start tearing it apart again.
Other than that, I'm out of ideas. Hope something in here helps; let us know what you find.
Yes, you are definitely missing a component there. Without seeing a set of schematics I can't say for sure whether that part has anything to do with the audio channels, but it is entirely possible.
The S10 iFixit used in their teardown has a different motherboard than yours, so that wasn't helpful in figuring out if you're missing something, but there's a French site called SOSav that has a motherboard guide using the same one you have. Here's a picture of the component you're missing.
I'll keep looking, but at the moment I can't tell you what that part is.
Alright, found a few diagrams, but not yet able to determine exactly what the part is. Here's where I found the board information.
SAMSUNG GALAXY S10 SM-G973F
From the board layout file, the part we're looking for is labelled TA8004. It's labelled in red.
There are two other instances of the same part used on the board; they're marked in orange; parts numbered TA8003 and TA8005. Here's the component list for those parts.
The only thing I can gather from that sheet is that it's most likely a Tantalum capacitor, and that the three parts listed together are the same. Unfortunately it doesn't seem to give any more information about the specifications for those parts.
Probably not that much help, but here's the official Samsung troubleshooting chart for the speaker.
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