Have you checked that the USB-C port is OK i.e. not loose, no bent pins or debris lodged in the port, you didn't say?
Here's the ifixit Samsung Galaxy Note20 Ultra USB-C Port Replacement guide that will help so that you can check if it is securely connected etc.
If it appears to be OK then here's an image the Normal/Fast Charging troubleshooting flowchart taken from the service manual that shows what to check. There's also an image showing the location of the parts mentioned in the flowchart.
Unfortunately there's no parts list in the manual so if one of the capacitors is faulty I don't know what it's value is.
(click on image)
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