If you're daring enough, pop off another key and analyse the mechanics underneath it and try to replicate that for the key that popped off. It's possible that the key that popped off is broken too. If you're uncomfortable with that, take it into a professional. It's hard to explain how to pop a keyboard key back on because every laptop has a different keyboard/mechanism under the keys.
Have you tried connecting your laptop to an external monitor to see if it will display? If it does, you either have a bad screen or ribbon cable connecting from the LCD to the motherboard. If it doesn't display on an external monitor, there's an issue with the graphics chip on the motherboard. What happens overtime is heat/various other unknown factors cause the solder connection with the board to weaken. In this case, your laptop's graphics chip will need to be "reflowed." This process requires a heat gun to heat the chip to a temperature where the solder underneath it melts and regains contact with the board. However, success from this procedure isn't always guaranteed and even when it's successful, there's no telling how long this will last as it is only a temporary solution as the chip itself isn't healthy. I've had cases where this solution extended my laptops life for a couple years and cases where it only extended it by a couple of days/weeks. Take it to a local professional and tell them that it...
Try plugging the MicroSD card into an adapter and see if your desktop/laptop can read it. If it can, backup your files onto your computer and get a new MicroSD card. If it does read it, it could be a faulty slot on your phone. If your computer cannot read it, it's likely that your MicroSD card failed. I wouldn't tamper with it. Send it in to www.datarecoveryguy.com
It is possible that your phone has a faulty charging port. Even though the phone says it's charging, the current might not be flowing completely from the charger through the port, hence your phone telling you it's charging when it's really not. Another could be a bad battery. I would suggest taking it to a local phone repair shop, or you could use a guide from this website to replace the port yourself. Either that or try a new battery. It's trial and error at this point.